The House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin descended from Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr, that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry VII, a descendant through his mother of a legitimized branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses.
The House of Lancaster was one of the opposing factions involved in the Wars of the Roses, an intermittent dynastic struggle which affected England and Wales during the 15th century. The family provided England with three kings: Henry IV of England, Henry V of England, and Henry VI of England and II of France. The term "Lancastrian" refers to members of the family as well as their supporters.
The House of Windsor is the royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on July 17th, 1917, when he changed the name of his German family to the English Windsor. Currently, the most prominent member of the House of Windsor is its head, Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms.
The House of York reigned over England in the XV century, from 1461 to 1485, being briefly deprived of power in 1470-71. They represent the last members of the Plantagenets, dynasty who sat on England's throne since 1154. Through the male line, the house of York traced their descent from Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York, and fourth surviving son of King Edward III. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown.